By B.A. McKeown, G.L. March
Water Research, Volume 12, Issue 3, 1978, Pages 157-163, ISSN 0043-1354, DOI: 10.1016/0043-1354(78)90003-9.

Bunker C oil and an oil dispersant were tested for physiological stress on both freshwater and saltwater acclimated rainbow trout. Both compounds tended to reduce serum glucose levels with Bunker C causing the more significant decrease (P < 0.08), indicating a possible dysfunction of the kidney. The freshwater treatment group showed a significant decrease in sodium levels (P < 0.01) when treated with a dispersant, while under similar conditions, saltwater acclimated fish show a very marked increase in serum sodium concentrations (P < 0.025). Those fluctuations in sodium levels are resultant from direct interference with the energy activated sodium transport systems of the gills. Microphotographs of gill filaments and lamellae show severe damage caused by the dispersant and dispersant/oil mixture with less impairment resultant from Bunker C exposure.

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