By M.A. Giles, J.F. Klaverkamp
Water Research, Volume 16, Issue 6, 1982, Pages 885-889, ISSN 0043-1354, DOI: 10.1016/0043-1354(82)90018-5.

The effects of vanadium (25-595 mg l-1) and of copper (0.03-4.78 mg l-1) on embryonic survival and hatching of eyed eggs of rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri, were investigated. Copper was approx. 300-fold more toxic than vanadium (96-h LC50 = 0.4 and 118 mg l-1, respectively) but had little effect on the timing of hatch. Vanadium induced premature hatching of eyed eggs at concentrations from 44 to 595 mg l-1. Concentrations of copper required to produce lethality in eyed eggs were similar to concentrations required to produce mortality in juveniles. Vanadium concentrations approx. 15 times higher were required to produce mortality in eyed eggs than in juveniles. Therefore, acute exposure of eyed rainbow trout eggs to vanadium is not a sensitive toxicity test for use in establishing water quality criteria or maximum acceptable toxicant concentrations.

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