By Peter V. Hodson, Beverley R. Blunt, Douglas J. Spry
Water Research, Volume 12, Issue 10, 1978, Pages 869-878, ISSN 0043-1354, DOI: 10.1016/0043-1354(78)90039-8.

Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) exposed to lead in Lake Ontario water demonstrated a 21-day LC50 of 2.4 mg l-1 lead. At lead concentrations ranging from 3 to 120 [mu]g l-1, log10 of lead concentrations in most tissues of exposed fish appeared linearily related to log10 of lead concentrations in water. Highest concentrations occurred in opercular bone followed by gill and kidney. Lead accumulation by brain was not clearly demonstrated. Exposure to lead in water at concentrations as low as 13 [mu]g l-1 caused significant increases in red blood cell (RBC) numbers, decreases in RBC volumes, decreases in RBC cellular iron content and decreases in RBC [delta]-amino levulinic acid dehydratase activity. No changes were observed in hematocrit or whole blood iron content. The changes indicated increased erythropoiesis to compensate for inhibition of hemoglobin production and increased mortality of mature red blood cells. After 32 weeks exposure to 120 [mu]g l-1 lead in water, 30% of remaining fish exhibited black tails, an early indication of spinal deformities. Lead added to food was not available for lead uptake by fish. Lead content of fish exposed to dietary lead was not elevated above control levels and the majority of lead consumed could be accounted for in the faeces. Dietary lead may have slightly inhibited uptake of dietary iron.

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