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11-08-2010, 02:52 PM #1
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Effect of fluctuating exposures on the acute toxicity of ammonia to rainbow trout (Sa
By Robert V. Thurston, Charles Chakoumakos, Rosemarie C. Russo
Water Research, Volume 15, Issue 7, 1981, Pages 911-917, ISSN 0043-1354, DOI: 10.1016/0043-1354(81)90147-0.
Acute toxicity bioassays in which fish were exposed to short-term cyclic fluctuations of ammonia were conducted on rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and on cutthroat trout (S. clarki). Companion tests were also conducted in which test fish were subjected to ammonia at constant concentrations. The tests ranged in duration from 96 h to 4 weeks. Median lethal concentration (LC 50) values in terms of both average and peak concentrations of ammonia for the fluctuating concentration tests were compared with LC 50 values for the constant concentration (conventional) tests. Based on comparisons of total dose exposure, results showed that fish were more tolerant of constant concentrations of ammonia than of fluctuating concentrations. Fish subjected to fluctuating concentrations of ammonia at levels below those acutely toxic were subsequently better able to withstand exposure to higher fluctuating concentrations than fish not previously so acclimated.