By D.J. McLeay, C.C. Walden, J.R. Munro
Water Research, Volume 13, Issue 3, 1979, Pages 249-254, ISSN 0043-1354, DOI: 10.1016/0043-1354(79)90202-1.

In freshwater bioassays with juvenile rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), at initial pH values from 4 to 11, kraft mill effluents were considerably less toxic at pH 9-10 than at neutrality. When pH of test solutions was controlled throughout the bioassay period, the least toxic range was 8.5-9.5. Toxicity at typical receiving-water pH values was 50-67% greater.
The acute toxicity of effluent samples to yearling coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) was identical for these effluents in seawater and freshwater respectively, provided that the pH was adjusted and held at the same value, and that test fish were previously acclimated to the dilution water for several months. Thus seawater constituents other than pH did not affect the acute toxicity of pulp and paper mill effluents appreciably.

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