By Knut-Erik Tollefsen, Joris F. A. Meys, Jorid Frydenlund, Jorgen Stenersen
Marine Environmental Research, Volume 54, Issues 3-5, September-December 2002, Pages 697-701, ISSN 0141-1136, DOI: 10.1016/S0141-1136(02)00173-3.

Environmental chemicals may modulate the endocrine system through interaction with plasma sex steroid-binding proteins (SBP) and SBP-regulated processes. Some of these chemicals, which are known to interact with the estrogen receptor (ER), were found to bind competitively to the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) SBP and potentially disrupt the endocrine function of these proteins. Furthermore, both weakly acting (di-n-butyl phthalate) and potent estrogen mimics (ethynylestradiol), were able to induce a substantial up-regulation of circulating levels of SBP in vivo. Interestingly, modulation of SBP-levels was found to be a more sensitive endpoint than chemically induced interference with classical ER-mediated mechanisms for weakly acting estrogen mimics like di-(n-butyl) phthalate. Interference with the endocrine function of SBPs may thus introduce a novel mechanism for endocrine disruption, and give additional answers to the question why some weakly acting xenoestrogens are causing 'estrogen-like' reproductive disturbances in developing males.
Keywords: Endocrine disrupters; Sex steroid-binding proteins; Ethynylestradiol; Di-(n-butyl) phthalate; Atlantic salmon

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