By Alan J.A. Sippel, Joseph R. Geraci, Peter V. Hodson
Water Research, Volume 17, Issue 9, 1983, Pages 1115-1118, ISSN 0043-1354, DOI: 10.1016/0043-1354(83)90051-9.

Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were exposed to sublethal levels of water-borne or dietary lead for 32 weeks. The study included a histopathological assessment of all organs, examination of red cell morphology, and a comparison of oxygen consumption in liver homogenates from exposed and control fish. No effects of lead toxicity were noted in these parameters. The most sensitive and reliable indicator of lead toxicity was the development of black tails and spinal curvature. These changes were observed in 30% of trout exposed to 120 +/- 31 [mu]g Pb 1-1 of water-borne lead after 30 weeks. No other effects of lead toxicity were noted.

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