Long-term effects of treated domestic wastewater on brown trout
By Robert F. Carline, Amy J. Benson, Hans Rothenbacher
Water Research, Volume 21, Issue 11, November 1987, Pages 1409-1415, ISSN 0043-1354, DOI: 10.1016/0043-1354(87)90017-0.
A 12-month bioassay was conducted to determine the effects of unchlorinated, treated, domestic wastewater on survival, growth, swimming performance, and gill tissue of brown trout (Salmo trutta). Ammonia was the toxicant of concern, because the facility's effluent periodically exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) recommended criterion. Juvenile brown trout (initial weight = 2 g), which were exposed to six concentrations (0-37%) of effluent, were fed a restricted ration, so that growth rates were similar to those of wild stream residents. At the highest effluent concentration, monthly mean concentrations of un-ionized ammonia ranged from 0.004 to 0.055 mg l-1 NH3---N (at. wt = 14); these concentrations exceeded the EPA criterion of 0.016 mg l-1 about 40% of the time. There were no significant effects of effluent concentration on survival, growth, or swimming performance of brown trout, but the degree of damage to gills was directly related to effluent concentration.
Keywords: ammonia; brown trout; Salmo trutta; wastewater toxicity