Modeling the brain-pituitary-gonad axis in salmon
By Jonghan Kim, William L. Hayton, Irvin R. Schultz
Marine Environmental Research, Volume 62, Supplement 1, Pollutant Responses in Marine Organisms (PRIMO 13), 2006, Pages S426-S432, ISSN 0141-1136, DOI: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2006.04.022.
To better understand the complexity of the brain-pituitary-gonad axis (BPG) in fish, we developed a biologically based pharmacodynamic model capable of accurately predicting the normal functioning of the BPG axis in salmon. This first-generation model consisted of a set of 13 equations whose formulation was guided by published values for plasma concentrations of pituitary- (FSH, LH) and ovary- (estradiol, 17[alpha],20[beta]-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one) derived hormones measured in Coho salmon over an annual spawning period. In addition, the model incorporated pertinent features of previously published mammalian models and indirect response pharmacodynamic models. Model-based equations include a description of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) synthesis and release from the hypothalamus, which is controlled by environmental variables such as photoperiod and water temperature. GnRH stimulated the biosynthesis of mRNA for FSH and LH, which were also influenced by estradiol concentration in plasma. The level of estradiol in the plasma was regulated by the oocytes, which moved along a maturation progression. Estradiol was synthesized at a basal rate and as oocytes matured, stimulation of its biosynthesis occurred. The BPG model can be integrated with toxico-genomic, -proteomic data, allowing linkage between molecular based biomarkers and reproduction in fish.
Keywords: Feedback; Periodic turnover; Hormone signaling; Biologically based mathematical (pharmacodynamic) model