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Paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins induce xenobiotic metabolising enzymes in Atlant
By M. J. Gubbins, F. B. Eddy, S. Gallacher, R. M. Stagg
Marine Environmental Research, Volume 50, Issues 1-5, July 2000, Pages 479-483, ISSN 0141-1136, DOI: 10.1016/S0141-1136(00)00095-7.
Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins have been implicated as the causative agent of a number of fish kills. Exposure experiments indicate that fish are susceptible to PSPs by intra-peritoneal (i.p.) and oral administration, while sampling of fish affected by toxic blooms reveals that these toxins can be accumulated. In spite of the potential impact to marine fisheries, little research has been conducted on the potential metabolism and detoxification of PSPs in marine fishes. Previous work by this group has shown that the xenobiotic metabolising enzyme (XME) cytochrome P-450 (CYP1A) is induced in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) following i.p. exposure to saxitoxin (STX). Salmon injected i.p. with sub-lethal doses of STX show a four- to eight- fold induction of hepatic CYP1A (as shown by ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity) over controls after 96 h. Results presented here show that the phase II XME glutathione S-transferase (GST) is also induced in salmon following PSP exposure. Post smolts were exposed to three injections of PSPs (2 [mu]g STXeq/kg) over 21 days. Injection of both STX and PSPs extracted from a toxic strain of dinoflagellate (Alexandrium fundyense, CCMP 1719) resulted in induction of hepatic GST, as measured by activity for 1-chloro 2,4-dinitrobenzene. Such inductions indicate a potential role for XMEs in PSP metabolism. Possible roles for other enzymes are also discussed.
Keywords: Atlantic salmon; Glutathione; S-transferase; Saxitoxin; PSP toxins; Alexandrium