By Aimo Oikari, Bjorn-Erik Lonn, Maija Castren, Tarja Nakari, Barbro Snickars-Nikinmaa, Hannu Bister, Erkki Virtanen
Water Research, Volume 17, Issue 1, 1983, Pages 81-89, ISSN 0043-1354, DOI: 10.1016/0043-1354(83)90288-9.

Toxicological and physiological effects of dehydroabietic acid (DHAA), a major poison to fishes in pulp and paper mill effluents, were studied by two experiments with rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson: in the first, fish were acutely exposed for 4 days to an average DHAA concentration of 1.2 mg l-1 (Exp. I) and in the second for 30 days to an average of 20 [mu]g DHAA l-1 (Exp. II).
Compared to the controls, fish of Exp. I displayed a decreased relative weight of liver, an increased blood haematocrit, and increased haemoglobin as well as plasma protein concentrations. The aspartate aminotransferase activity of heart muscle was significantly elevated, as was also the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) of white muscle tissue. In the blood plasma, the proportion of muscle type LDH activity was simultaneously increased. UDP-glucuronyl-transferase activities of liver and kidney were strongly decreased. Results suggest an increased and altered use of body energy reserves, decreased plasma volume and impaired liver function.
Fish of Exp. II showed an increased relative weight of spleen. In addition, liver and gill LDH shifted towards heart-type. We conclude that 20 [mu]g l-1 is close to the 'minimum effective concentration' of DHAA to rainbow trout.
Keywords: sublethal effects; dehydroabietic acid; pulp and paper effluents; Salmo gairdneri; haematology; enzymes

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